Will two child policy work in India ?
> More than half century has passed after creating Official Population Policy
> A plea has been filed in Supreme Court by a famous BJP leader Ashwini Upadhyay, he is also a big lawyer. In his plea he has suggested following (we will cover few important points he mentioned):
1. If some person want government job
2. If some person want to get benefit of government subsidies
he should comply with 2 child policy
3. If you have more than 2 children , your statutory rights as a citizen including right to vote and right to contest election should be withdrawn.
4. First Sunday of every month should be declared health day to spread awareness against massive population problem .
5. Provide contraceptive pill, condoms, vaccines to economically weaker sections and families which are below poverty line
6. Minimum age of marriage should be 21 years for all citizens
7. There are several cases where some rights has already withdrawn for people with more than 2 children, like in states like Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and Haryana if you have more than 2 children you can't contest local body elections. it has yielded encouraging results in reducing population growth in those states.
8. In this plea, it is also said that public representatives are also law makers that is why they should set example by adopting 2 child norm so that common people of the country also gets encouragement to adopt two child policy.
So this idea of two child policy is not something new , in fact as you have read above it has been implemented into several states at small scale and we are trying to implement this policy at a bigger scale at national level. So two child policy is something implementable.
Supreme court has already said that this is a policy decision and government must take some action on it. So assuming that SC may compel government to create such policy is not very likely since SC has already put onus on the government.
So what is the use of such pleas in SC ?
Such pleas serve two purposes
1. It makes common people aware of the issue
2. It put a pressure on government to take issue seriously and come up with a solution .
Based on recent data current population of India is somewhere near to 1.31 Billion, it is still less than China, but based on some estimates we will overcome China in terms of population by sometime later half of 2020.
India's fertility rate is 2.3 births per woman in 2016 , earlier it was 3.2 birth per woman in 2000.
Total Fertility Rate : The average number of children a woman is expected to bear in her lifetime is called the Total Fertility rate (TFR)
A TFR of 2.1 is considered to be ideal, if it is achieved it will mean that the population will stablize in long run. It is also known as replacement level fertility rate .
What are the problems related to overpopulation in India or in world in general ?
1. Water scarcity
2. Employment / Jobs - India is facing jobless growth (it means countries GDP is growing but proportionately jobs are not getting created)
Initiatives / Attempts by government
After Independence , Population Policy commitee was created in 1952. It was created on ad hoc basis and not much concreate step was taken by it.
For the first time our country got proper National Population Policy in April, 1976 .
In this policy proposal for increasing the marriage age was introduced.
Education level among women was suggested as one way to takle popelation problem
It was also suggested to introduce monetary benefit for small families.
A great emphasis on male sterialization was also given.
People were not very exited about these family planning initiative, in 1977 election Congress party have to face a big defeat.
After that no political party has given much thought to the issue of population control yet.
The next National Population Policy was introduced in year 2000. In had Short , Medium and Long term Goals.
Short term goal was to fullfill the demand of contraception and health care infrastructure. Improve child healthcare
Medium term goal was to bring down total fertility rate (TFR)
Long term goal was to achieve a population stability by 2045
Although above policy managed to bring down total fertility rate from 3.2 to 2.3 between 2000 and 2016 (which is encouraging) , but still we are second most populous country in the world and yet to achieve replacement fertility rate of 2.1
At the time of independece our population was 35 Crore, in 2011 it increased to 121 Crore.
Points to think of for the reader of this article is :-
1. Do we need some strong law to control population like reducing rights of citizens who have more childrens?
2. Should we focus more on educating and informing people about the problems of massive population and wait for people to be self aware like the way it happened in other developing democracy as when democracy develop fertility rates drops.